Ahli Gizi Online

Nutrition for Healthy Bone and Heart

Posted on: 27 Januari 2012

A. Introduction

Bone and heart is an organ that is essential for our body. However, unbalanced lifestyle, and age made of bone and heart function declines, so the risk of osteoporosis and coronary heart disease increases.

In Indonesia the case of osteoporosis reached about 26-38%, whereas, the heart and blood vessel disease is a major killer, or 24.3% of all deaths. And there’s the fact that people with osteoporosis, has a 6-fold risk of coronary heart exposed.

Meanwhile, the facts show 1 in 5 people in Indonesia at high risk for osteoporosis (Ministry of Health Nutrition Research, 2002). Typically, patients do not feel the symptoms of osteoporosis until a fracture occurs, so-called silent disease.

B.     Osteoporosis And Coronary Heart

 1.     Osteoporosis

The main constituent of bone, ie bone mineral, which contains calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and protein, called collagen. Consisted of normal bone, a layer of dense bone surrounding the plate, and bone fibers (hollow bones) that punctuated the bone marrow.

Above age, decreased bone density, which caused the loss of bone tissue, which is faster and redundant, rather than the formation of new bone tissue, known as osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis makes bones become thin, spongy bone tissue will be widened, so easy to crack the bone, caused by minor trauma or no trauma. The part that is often broken, pelvis, hip and leg.

Prevent Osteoporosis

Calcium is the mineral most widely in the human body. Approximately 99% of calcium, contained in the hard tissues of bones and teeth. 1% of calcium present in blood, and soft tissue. Without calcium 1%, the muscle will be impaired contraction, would be difficult to freeze the blood, impaired nerve transmission, and so on.

To meet the 1% of this need, the body takes it from the food you eat or from the bone. When food is eaten yanag can not meet demand, then the body will take it from the bones. So the bone can be said as the body’s calcium reserves. If this happened in a long time, then the bone will experience bone loss.

Power absorption of calcium is higher in its infancy, and decreased in the aging process. Absorption in men, higher than women, in all groups. There are several factors that can increase the absorption of calcium, including:

1. Levels of calcium the body needs.

The increase in demand occurred in growth, pregnancy, lactation, and calcium deficiency.

2. Vitamin D.

Vitamin D stimulates calcium absorption through the steps of the complex. Vitamin D increases the absorption in the intestinal mucosa, by stimulating the production of calcium binding protein-

3. Hydrochloric acid.

Hydrochloric acid released by the stomach, helps absorption of calcium, by lowering the pH in the upper small intestine.

4. Foods that contain fat.

Fats increase the transit time of food through the digestive tract, thus, giving more time for absorption of calcium.

In addition, there is also a factor, which can inhibit the absorption of calcium include:

1. active form of vitamin D deficiency

2. foods that contain oxalic acid, like spinach and other vegetables

3. foods high in fiber, as it accelerates the transit time of food in the gastrointestinal tract

4. strong tea, coffee and carbonated drinks

 Adequate Rate of Calcium according to AKG 2005

– Baby 200-400 mg
– Children 500-600 mg
– Adolescent 1000 mg
– Adult   800 mg
– Pregnancy and Lactation +150 mg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Coronary Heart Diseases

Initially, the Coronary Heart Disease is caused by a buildup of fat in the blood vessel walls in the heart (coronary arteries), and this, from time to time, followed by various processes, such as the accumulation of connective tissue, calcification, blood clotting, and others, which will narrow , or clogged blood vessels. This will cause the heart muscle in the area, has a shortage of blood flow, and can cause serious effects, angina pectoris (chest pain), to the Cardiac Infarction, who in the community, known as heart attack, which can cause sudden death .

Some of the most important risk factor for coronary heart diseases:

  • High total cholesterol and LDL levels
  • low HDL cholesterol levels
  • high blood pressure (hypertension),
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Obesity
  • History of heart disease in the family tree,
  • Lack of exercise
  • Stress.

 

Role of Omega 3 and 6

Two polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential for the body, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid is used to build omega-6 fatty acids, and alpha-linolenic acid is used to build omega-3 fatty acids. Fatty acids can not be synthesized in the body, and must be supplied by food. They are called essential fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6, essential fatty acids, in the normal functioning of all body tissues. We must ensure that you include good sources of omega-3 and omega-6 every day.

Omega-3 fatty acids are more famous, because votes can lower blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in the blood the amount of content.

Omega-3 is even believed to inhibit the risk of heart disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. Among other benefits, can improve intelligence, because it serves to synthesize myelin, which can accelerate the stimulation to the brain. Response and coordination of the nervous system, faster. Mental disorders can be reduced by intake of omega-3.

Consumption of omega-6 can reduce the risk of heart disease, because it is an unsaturated fatty acid. Omega-6 is also important, because it is a precursor of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin, which is important for heart health.

Optimal ratio, intake of omega-6 and omega-3, is 4:1, or even lower. The presence of omega-6 is still considered important, although it is suggested proportion is not excessive.

Omega-6 is difficult to separate from the omega-3, because both are interrelated, and there are usually together in the source of unsaturated fatty acids. Comparison of the amount of omega-6 to omega-3 should be balanced and appropriate, not good, if it is too low and too big.

Research omega-6/omega-3 ratio spearheaded by Susan Allport in his book The Queen of Fats. Written in the book, the general U.S. population, eating too much fat balance. This condition can actually cause disease. According to Susan, if the amount of omega-3 and omega-6 is not balanced, both will compete in the metabolism of the body, causing further effect.

Omega-6 are widely available in some foods, such as vegetable oil sources: sunflower oil, corn, soy and other beans. Cereal food ingredient is generally also contain omega-6. Eggs are a source of omega-6, although the number, not as much omega-3 content in it. Total consumption of omega-6 are encouraged to meet the recommended standards.

 

Sample Menu High Calsium and Omega 3,6

Time

Food

Portion Siza

Breakfast
  •  Tuna Cheese Sandwich
  •  Orange Juice
2 slices

1 glass

Snack Milk 1 glass
Lunch
  •  Rice
  •  Salmon Meatball Soup
  •  Souffle “tahu”
  •  Sauteed Broccoli
  •  Watermelon
25 tablespoon

1 small bowl

2 moderate slice

1 small bowl

1 moderate slice

Snack Milk 1 glass
Dinner
  •  Rice
  •  Fried flour Teri
  •  Croquette Red Bean
  •  Sauteed Kailan
  •  Melons
25 tablespoon

5 tablespoon

1 moderate slice

1 small bowl

1 ptg sdg

Snack
  •  Yoghurt strawberry
1 small glass

 

Sources :

Anonym.2005. Angka Kecukupan Gizi. Depkes RI

Hastawan, Made. 2009. Seimbangkan omega 3 dan 6. Diakses dari http://cybermed.cbn.net.id/

Health Today edisi April 2008. Jaga Tulang agar senantiasa sehat

Ides.2007. Makanan untuk Penderita Osteoporosis

http://www.medistra.com

http://konsulgizi.blogspot.com

http://www.veganpeace.com/

 

 

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